09 September 2014


I have Y-DNA haplogroup Q and my terminal SNP is Q-F1161. These are the STR test results from the Y67 test I did not so long ago. You can open the picture in a new tab/window to see a bigger version.

28 April 2014


Open picture in new tab/window to view larger version.

The Genographic Project was launched in 2005. The aim of the project is to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from people around the world. I participated in the first phase of the project. I found out my mothers mtDNA haplogroup is H and my fathers Y-DNA haplogroup is Q. The mtDNA and Y-DNA are used to track human ancestry. The Y-DNA is passed on from father to son. The mtDNA is passed on from mother to daughter. The mtDNA is also passed on from mother to son but the son does not pass it on to his children. A second face of the project called Geno 2.0 was launched in 2012. The Geno 2.0 test gives you more detailed info about you ancestry compared to the first phase of the project. I decided to also paticipate in the second phase of the project. Not so long ago I received an email from the Genographic Project telling me to sign in to their website genographic.com to find out the results of my Geno 2.0 test. According to the Geno 2.0 test my mothers mtDNA haplogroup is H1 and my fathers Y-DNA haplogroup is Q-F1161. The Genographic Project gives you the opportunity to transfer your test results to Family Tree DNA for free. Family Tree DNA offers analysis of human DNA for genealogical purposes. The picture above is from Family Tree DNA's website familytreedna.com and shows my Y-DNA test results.

To find out more info about Y-DNA haplogroup Q you should read my earlier post on the subject...

The picture above is from genographic.com and shows my genetic admixture. According to the Geno 2.0 test I'm 45% Northern European, 33% Mediterranean, 18% Southwest Asian and 2% Northeast Asian. I was surprised to find out that I'm only 45% Northern European.

The picture above is from genographic.com and shows my Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry. According to the Geno 2.0 test I'm 1.6% Neanderthal and 0.9% Denisovan.

14 April 2014


Haplogroup Q arose approximately 17000 to 22000 years ago with a man born in Siberia. Haplogroup Q is linked to people that speak languages belonging to the Dené-Yeniseian language family. The Dené-Yeniseian language family consist of the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America. The Ket language, the sole surviving language of the Yeniseian language family, is spoken by the Kets. The Kets are thought to be the only survivors of an ancient nomadic people believed to have originally lived throughout central southern Siberia. Some of the people with haplogroup Q migrated east. They crossed the landbridge between northeast Siberia and Alaska that existed during the last ice age. Some of these people made it all the way to Greenland. I think there was a very early migration from Siberia or Greenland to Scandinavia. Haplogroup Q is found at low frequency on the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Haplogroup Q is virtually absent among the Sami people and the Finns. I belong to haplogroup Q. I did the Geno 2.0 DNA test in 2014. According to the Geno 2.0 test I'm Q-F1161. My grandfather was from Östergötland in Sweden. I can trace back my roots 9 generations to a man with the name Anders Bengtsson. I'm a direct decendant of his son Bengt Andersson who was born 22 november 1735 in Risinge parish in Östergötland.

To find out more info about my Geno 2.0 test results you should read my post on the subject...

14 March 2014


Before you read this post you should read my post about the Proto-Germanic people:


The Langobards and the Heaðobards were probably the same people. I think Skåne was the original homeland of the Langobards. Origo Gentis Langobardorum (7th century) and Historia Langobardorum (8th century) tell the history of the Langobards. According to these texts the Langobards were originally called Winnili and their original homeland was called Scadan/Scadanan. According to Historia Langobardorum the Winnili split into three groups. One of the groups left their original homeland. This group would later become the Langobards. I think the Heaðobards were the Winnili that remained.

This is how Scadan/Scadanan is described in Historia Langobardorum:

This island then, as those who have examined it have related to us, is not so much placed in the sea as it is washed about by the sea waves which encompass the land on account of the flatness of the shores.

According to ancient writers the Langobards dwelt near the mouth of the river Elbe at the beginning of the Common Era. The place-names Bardengau and Bardowick in what today is northern Germany most likely derive from the name of the Langobards. It can hardly be said of neither Bardengau or Bardowick that it is surrounded by sea waves. Skåne on the other hand fit the description very well.

In ancient texts Scandinavia is refered to as an island. Skåne (aka Scania) and Scandinavia have the same etymology. It's two different forms of the same name. Originally it was the name for Skåne. Later it became the name for all of Scandinavia. The Old Norse name for Skåne was Skáney. The second segment of Skáney means island. The Old English name for Skåne was Scedenig. The second segment of the name represents Old English īġ that means island. Note the similarity between Scadan/Scadanan and Scedenig.

Beowulf (8th century) is an Old English poem. The text mention a feud between the Danes and the Heaðobards. According to the text the Danes killed the Heaðobard king Froda. The Danish king sent his daughter to marry Froda's son Ingeld to end the feud. One of the Heaðobards urged the other Heaðobards to avenge Froda. Widsith (9th century) is another Old English poem. The text also mentions the feud between the Danes and the Heaðobards. According to the text the Danes defeated the Heaðobards. In later Scandinavian texts Froda is referred to as a Danish king. The later Scandinavian texts mention the feud but not the Heaðobards. The Heaðobards had either been forgotten by then or the Heaðobards were deliberately erased from history by the the Danes. Froda was not a Danish king. Froda was a Heaðobard king.

The Heaðobard that urged the other Heaðobards to avenge Froda was Starkad/Starkodder. There used to be a mound in northwestern Skåne called Starkodder's mound. In the 12th century a historian working for the Danish archbishop Absalon wrote that Starkad killed Angantyr and his brothers. According to the text this happened in northwestern Skåne not far from Starkodder's mound. According to the legend there used to be a stone circle marking out the spot where it happened. According to the Annales Ryenses (13th century), it was still possible to see Starkad's sword in the water beneath the bridge of Boilyngh when the water was low. Later this spot was located to Rönne river in northwestern Skåne. In the 16th century people talked of the Stones of Starkad at Vegeholm also in northwestern Skåne. The Danish folklorist Axel Olrik and Arthur Stille recorded many recent traditions about Starkad in northwestern Skåne.

The Æthelweard Chronicle (10th century) tell the history of the Anglo-Saxons. According to the text the Anglo-Saxon kings decendeded from a Langobard king called Scef. According to the text Scef came in a boat as a child to Scani. Scani means Skåne. Later on Scef became king of the land. Widsith mentions a Langobard king called Sceafa. The same story that can be found in the Æthelweard Chronicle can also be found in Beowulf. According to the Beowulf text Scyld Scefing came in a boat as a child to Scedenigge/Scedelandum. The Old English name for Skåne was Scedenig. Scedelandum means the Scanian lands. The old name for Skåneland was Skånelandene. Skånelandene means the Scanian lands. Later on Scyld Scefing became king of the land. Scyld means shield. The Bjäre peninsula and the Kullen peninsula in northwestern Skåne form a bay called Skälderviken. There is a town on the cost with the same name. The first segment of Skälderviken means shield. The second segment of the name means bay.

The area around Växjö in southern Småland.

Close-up of the area around Dänningelanda.

De origine actibusque Getarum (6th century) tell the history of the Goths. According to the text the Danes were the same people as the Swedes. In the area around Växjö in southern Småland there are place-names like Dänningelanda, Dänninge, Dänningeborg and Danneborg. The first segment of all these place-names have the same etymology as Dan. Dänn- is an archaic form of Dan. There is no other place in Scandinavia where you find a cluster of place-names like that. In Denmark place-names like that are virtually absent. In the same area in southern Småland you also find place-names like Yngslanda, Inglinge, Inglinge hög, Ingelstad and Uppsala. The Ynglings were a legendary dynasty of Swedish kings. Uppsala were the residence of the Swedish kings. According to De origine actibusque Getarum the Heruli were expelled from their native homeland by the Danes. I think the Danes migrated south from their original homeland. As the Danes migrated south they came into conflict with the Heathobards and the Heruli. The Heaðobards were subdued and the Heruli were expelled.

Småland is a province in southern Sweden. Småland borders to Skåne. Forna Rijdghiöta eller Smålendske Antiqviteter is a text that tell the history of Småland. The text was written by Petter Rudbeck in the 17th century. The text is based on myths, songs and legends from Småland. According to the text a Geatish king called Eric I sent people from Småland to colonize what is today Denmark. According to the text it was these people that became the Danes. The same story can be found in a text called Historia de omnibus gothorum sueonumque regibus. The text was written by Johannes Magnus in the 16th century. Historia de omnibus gothorum sueonumque regibus tell the history of the Swedes. In the text there is a song called the Ballad of Eric. According to the song a Geatish king called Eric sent troops south to colonize land that had not yet been cultivated. Later a Geatish king named Humli sent his son Dan to rule the settlers. The land was named Denmark after Dan. According to Johannes Magnus the Ballad of Eric was widely sung among the peasantry in Sweden at the time.